The Writing Teacher – Revision Strategies

Revision is hard to teach.  I asked Laura to share some tips on how to teach great revision strategies.

“I don’t know what to revise or how to revise.”  Too many students feel this way when teachers ask them to revise their writing for content and word choice.  It is important for students to revise their own work and then have a peer writing partner offer revision suggestions. The big question is, How can teachers help students revise their work?

What follows are seven tips that move revision out of your hands and into your students’ hands.

Tip 1. Have students use the rubric or content criteria you negotiated and their writing plans to check their first drafts.

Tip 2. Model this checking process using the first draft of a student no longer at your school. Think out loud to show students how you compare the rubric and writing plan to the first draft. Then, make a list of areas that require revision. For example:

Shorten the title

Need to add dialogue and punctuate

Make nouns like things and stuff specific

Sentence openings in 2 paragraphs all the same–need to vary them.

Tip 3. Have students make a list of what they need to revise.

Tip 4.  Model revision strategies.

To revise one or a few sentences or add sentences place a number next to the sentence that needs elaborating. On separate paper, have the student write the same number and complete the revision.

To generate specific nouns have students write in the margin a list of 2 to 3 possibilities, reread the sentence inserting each new and select the choice that works.

To vary sentence openings, students can combine two related sentences, open some sentences with a prepositional phrase or open with one of these words (called subordinating conjunctions): when, since, until, because, if, as soon as, although, unless, whenever.

Tip 5. Have the student invite his/her writing partner to make revision suggestions. Partners use a plan, rubric or criteria, and the first draft to create a feedback list.

Tip 6. Invite students to review all feedback, decide what they’ll include in their revisions, then write their revisions following suggestions in Tip 4.

Tip: 7: Ask students to compose a second draft that includes their revisions.

 

Now, teachers read improved second drafts and students learn how to use their plans and the rubric or criteria to figure out what to revise.  Of course, there will be errors not addressed in the rubric or criteria. Make a list of errors as you read second drafts. These become topics for future mini-lessons and student conferences.

Feedback on Second Drafts

Use students’ revision lists and rewrites to offer feedback. Look at the process from finding topics, brainstorming, negotiating a rubric or criteria, writing plan, first draft, revisions, and second draft. On a sticky-note, list a few things the student improved and/or did well using the rubric/criteria as your guide for responding. Then, take a few minutes to reflect on priorities–what you’d like the student to ponder and improve. Choose one or two needs and put these in the form of questions. Questions should be kind and encourage students to reflect. If necessary, let students have another shot at revising using your questions.

The point is to offer students a strategy, opportunity, and choice for improving their writing. When students feel confident doing the work of revision, you are teaching for independence!

Follow Laura @LRobbPrincipal

Check out this great book! Read Talk Write

Technology to Make a Difference

Enjoy this guest post by Patrick Hausammann, I.T.R.T. Follow Patrick @PHausTech

 

As an education professional and a technology integration specialist, there is often a myth or misconception that presents itself.  This myth is that a technology project is the same thing as technology integration.  Often a project will be worked into a lesson or unit because there is extra time left or lack of snow days has yielded more instructional days than planned on.

These projects can be fantastic uses of technology and allow the students to pursue avenues they haven’t before.  However, the students know when they do the project that it is a fleeting experience.  In many cases, when the project ends traditional teaching resumes without technology.  This is not to say that great teaching can’t occur without technology, however, the reach and innovative options for students research, audience, sharing/collaboration, and creativity are limited.  The graphic below denotes a possible definition of effective technology integration, note the differences…

Without technology freely available in the classroom, either through school provided devices or bring your own device programs, students do not have the ability to tap into the instant stream of worldwide information and experts the internet provides.  They also lack the avenues to pull the information together, collaborate with others outside of their classroom, and present the information in a visually stunning manner, such as with G Suite tools like Google Docs and Google Slides.  We must break away from teaching methods that use technology as a reward or a once-in-a-while event.

Another graphic further delineates the differences between technology use and technology integration from TeachThought.

So, please take some time to truly think about how technology is used in your classroom or by your teachers.  Is technology truly being used to make a difference?  Is it an integral part of the classroom such as paper and pencils?  Or is used when there is extra time left in class?  Is a calculator the only technology used in math class?  Is technology talked about as if it is on a pedestal or as if it is as prevalent as the air?

Never in any pursuit in education today, especially technology integration, should you feel this challenge is yours to take on by yourself.  If not supported through technology integration specialists in your building or your administration team, seek the world’s input and support via social media, blogs, websites, etc.  I stand willing to assist you among thousands (if not millions) of others; all you need to do is ask.  My website with all links (blog, social media, etc.) and conference presentations can be found at www.epedtech.com.  I truly believe that great pedagogy put together with innovative technology equals #EndlessPromise for our students.  Let’s use our growth mindsets to unleash the innovative creativity in all of our students!

 


Further Resources:

 

Leadership: Growth Mindset

Do you have a growth mindset or a fixed mindset? The mindset you have influences your thinking, actions, and decision making.

In her book, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, Carol Dweck points out the difference between a fixed mindset and a growth mindset.

“In a fixed mindset, people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits. They spend their time documenting their intelligence or talent instead of developing them. They also believe that talent alone creates success—without effort. They’re wrong.”

“In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work—brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment.”

Use questions to reflect on your leadership. Are you modeling and communicating a belief that learning is about time, opportunity, and effort which is a growth mindset?  Or, do you communicate through your actions or words that some people are simply more able than others, in a world of those who can and those who cannot?

My Top 5 Growth Mindset Concepts

Reflect on my top five growth mindset concepts as you consider your leadership and commitment to embracing a growth mindset.

Challenges can be opportunities:  Challenges are part of life, work, and school.  It is a personal choice to view challenges as problems or as opportunities to overcome or to improve.

Make the word “learning” part of your vocabulary:  People who believe in growth mindset are always learning.  Are you always learning? Do you demonstrate through words and actions a belief that every person in your organization is always learning?  How do you respond to people who say they can’t learn something new?

Redefine “brilliant”:  Very few people learn new concepts with magical ease.  Most people have to work hard; some may work less than others but almost always there is hard work behind a perception of brilliance.  Schools have been designed to communicate we all learn in lock step.  Such a belief leads to a sorting mentality, everyone does not learn the same or at the same speed. Sorting beliefs are always tied with fixed mindset thinking. 

Change your view of criticism:  As a leader, receiving criticism is part of the job.  The normal response people expect when they criticize another is often anger and resentment instead of an opportunity to problem solve. How you react to criticism speaks to your leadership and mindset.  Here’s my challenge to you: move the personal away from criticism and see it as an opportunity to grow, problem solve, and often to collaborate.

Use the word “yet.”Dweck says “not yet” has become one of her favorite phrases. Not being able to solve a problem can mean you simply cannot do it or you have not solved it yet.  Fixed mindset: you either can or cannot find a solution. Growth mindset: you cannot solve the problem, yet, but with more time, support, and effort you will be able to.  This is a simple concept that can have a profound impact on you and those around you.  So, the next time a person says, “ I can’t do math,” you can have a different and unexpected response for them.

Continue to learn more about growth mindset and how you can grow as a leader and have a positive influence on others!

The Principal’s Leadership Sourcebook

The Writing Teacher – Student Partnerships

I asked Laura to share her thoughts on how an English teacher can create a culture of feedback by supporting student partnership.

Reading and grading papers is a fact of the teaching life. However, writing teachers seem to spend more time on students’ work because they provide students with lengthy revision suggestions and correct most of the students’ incorrect use of conventions.  Frustrations over workload and time spent grading quickly set in, but these feelings go underground when you organize writing partnerships in your classes.

Students can select writing partners or you can assign them. However, offering students choice motivates them to work hard and support each other through the process. Since partnerships can change after completing a writing unit, students will be able to pair-up with several classmates during the year. In addition, if a partner is working diligently on a draft, encourage students to seek assistance from someone who has completed that part of the process.

Writing partnerships benefit teachers and students, and the suggestions that follow provide tips that help you place the responsibility for writing plans, drafting, revising, and editing on students.

Supporting Student Partnerships. Collaborate with students and motivate them to write, and at the same time, you’ll boost their engagement in the entire process.

  • Create the rubric with student input so that they invest in the process.
  • Negotiate with students the amount of time they need for each of the following parts of the process: designing a rubric with you; brainstorming and planning; composing the first draft; revising for content and style; and editing for conventions.
  • Circulate among students when they brainstorm, plan, and the draft so you can discuss questions and roadblocks with them and offer suggestions that move them forward.
  • Read and offer feedback on second drafts, for these have been greatly improved by students.
  • Use the rubric to make positive comments on a sticky note and ask one to two questions that push students back into the revision and/or editing process.

Releasing Responsibility to Students Partnerships. Students learn how to evaluate a piece of writing by comparing it to a rubric. Have students write self and peer evaluations on notebook paper and file these in their writing folders.  Make sure students save all of their written work–from brainstormed ideas to second drafts–in a writing folder.

  • Have students discuss their topics before brainstorming. This ensures that they generate more detailed lists.
  • Ask students to use their rubric to evaluate the richness of details in their writing plan and add specific details when necessary.
  • Have students use the rubric to self-and-peer evaluate first drafts by measuring these against the negotiated rubric.
  • Help partners understand that first drafts require much work. Encourage them to revise for content first, then writing style, and finally for conventions.
  • Have students use their revisions and edits to compose the second draft.
  • Require that students turn in all of their work with the second draft on top.

The Payoffs

  Teachers find it easier to grade and offer feedback on improved second drafts. Moreover, student partnerships free-up teachers with the time they need to support individuals who struggle with a task.  

Partnerships foster independence in writing among students. When they experience how comparing a draft to the rubric provides them with suggestions for improving their piece, they can choose and use feedback to revise and rewrite their writing.